In this lesson, you will learn all about 하다 [ha-da] verbs and the rules you need to know to use Korean hada verbs. Many Korean learners love 하다 verbs because they are very easy to conjugate due to the fact that they all end the same (i.e with 하다). Once you know how to conjugate one 하다 verb, you know how to conjugate all of them.
However, 하다 verbs are not as easy to learn as they may first appear. There are certain rules to follow when using 하다 verbs and the particular rule to follow depends on whether you are making a positive or negative sentence, and whether the 하다 verb is made up of a noun + 하다 or an adjective + 하다. Furthermore, there are some 하다 verbs that are exceptions and don’t follow the same rules.
RELATED: List Of 100 하다 Verbs
There are many verbs in Korean that end in 하다. Most of these verbs are made up of a noun plus the ending 하다 (to do). For example, the noun for ‘work’ is 일 [il], and the verb ‘to work’ is 일하다 [il-ha-da]. Due to the fact that 하다 verbs are made up of a noun part and a verb part (하다) they are used a little differently compared to other Korean verbs.
When making affirmative sentences using 하다 verbs, you can separate the 하다 verb into the noun part and the 하다 part, and then you can insert the object marking particle 을/를 after the noun. For example, when using the verb 청소하다 (to clean) in an affirmative sentence, you can insert the object marking particle 를 after the noun (청소) to make 청소를 하다.
By adding the object marking particle 를 after the noun 청소, you are showing clearly that the noun (청소) is the object of the action 하다 (do). Let’s look at some more examples.
운동 [un-dong] = exercise
운동하다 [un-dong-ha-da] = to exercise
운동을 하다 [un-dong-eul ha-da] = to exercise
운동을 해요. [un-dong-eul hae-yo] = I exercise.
숙제 = [suk-je] = homework
숙제하다 = [suk-je-ha-da] = to do one’s homework
숙제를 하다 = [suk-je-reul ha-da] = to do one’s homework
숙제를 해요. = [suk-je-reul hae-yo] = I do my homework.
*Please note that when making affirmative sentences with 하다 verbs you can separate the noun part from the 하다 part and insert the object marking particle, but you don’t have to. You can use either the original noun+하다 form or you can insert the object marking particle after the noun part of the 하다 verb.
When making negative sentences with 하다 verbs, 안 (don’t) or 못 (can’t) should be inserted before the 하다 part. Let’s look at an example.
요리 [yo-ri] = cook.
요리하다 [yo-ri-ha-da] = to cook
요리를 하다 [yo-ri-reul ha-da] = to cook
요리를 해요. [yo-ri-reul hae-yo.] = I cook.
요리를 안 해요. [yo-ri-reul an hae-yo.] = I don’t cook. (NOT 안 요리해요)
요리를 못 해요. [yo-ri-reul mot hae-yo.] = I can’t cook. (NOT 못 요리해요)
**요리 안 해요. [yo-ri-reul an hae-yo.] = I don’t cook.
**요리 못 해요. [yo-ri-reul mot hae-yo.] = I can’t cook.
**In spoken language, it is quite common to drop the object marking particle 을/를 and so you can also say 요리 안 해요 or 요리 못 해요 and it is perfectly fine.
1. ‘Fixed’ 하다 Verbs
There are some ‘fixed’ 하다 verbs that cannot be separated into a noun part and 하다 part. And so you cannot add 을/를 after the noun part or insert 안 before the verb when making negative sentences. With these ‘fixed’ 하다 verbs you simply treat them like normal verbs. So, when making negative sentences, you place 안 before the entire verb. Check the table below for some examples.
|Fixed 하다 Verb||Affirmative||Negative (안)|
(to get drunk)
(to look for)
(to have an upset stomach)
(to throw up)
2. Adjectives + 아/어하다
Another exception is 하다 verbs that are not noun + 하다 but rather adjectives + 아/어하다. As these verbs don’t contain a noun, they cannot be separated into a noun part and 하다 part. Therefore, verbs which are made from adjectives + 아/어하다 are treated just like normal verbs. So, when making negative sentences 안 comes before the entire verb. See the table below for some examples.
|Adjectives + 아/어하다||Affirmative||Negative (안)|
(to get drunk)
(to feel sick)
(to feel tired)
(to feel scared)
(to feel difficult)
(to feel pleased)
*The ending 아/어하다 is used to change adjectives (aka descriptive verbs) into verbs which are then used to talk about someone else’s feelings. For example, ‘Minho is not tired’ is 민호가 안 피곤해해요.
The key points to remember from this lesson are:
- Most 하다 verbs are made up of a noun + 하다. With these verbs, you can separate the noun part and the 하다 part and then insert 을/를 after the noun and insert 안 or 못 before 하다 when making negative sentences.
- Exceptions to this are ‘fixed’ 하다 verbs and verbs made up of an adjective + 아/어하다. These verbs cannot be separated into the noun part and 하다 part and so you cannot insert 을/를 and you must place 안 before the entire verb when making negative sentences.
Now that you know about the 하다 verb rules, check out this list of 100 하다 verbs and start practicing making your own sentences.